What is sciatica?

Sciatica (also known as lower extremity radiculitis or radiculopathy) is a condition characterized by weakness or sensory changes along the sciatic nerve pathway. The sensory changes are often described as “pins and needles” and can extend down the buttock, leg, and foot.

What causes sciatica?

The sciatic nerve can be affected by many different conditions and disease states. Many of these conditions ultimately lead the nerve to become pinched or stretched. Some of the most commonly seen conditions that produce sciatica are:

Herniated or bulging disc

This is the most common cause of sciatica. Separating each vertebra (spine bones) are discs that act as cushions to minimize the impact that the spinal column receives. Since the discs are designed to be soft and provide support, they have a tendency to herniate backward through the outer disc segment and nearby ligaments. This disc can irritate an adjacent nerve by physical contact or by leaking caustic substances directly onto the nerve.

Spinal stenosis

This is a disorder due to narrowing of the spinal canal that causes nerve or spinal cord impingement. The condition often results in persistent pain in the lower back and lower extremities. Difficulty walking, decreased sensation in the lower extremities, and decreased physical activity may also be experienced. Many people with spinal stenosis present with bilateral (both sides) sciatica.

Piriformis syndrome

The piriformis is a large muscle that is part of the pelvis. When this muscle becomes inflamed or overused, this muscle can trap the sciatic nerve deep in the buttock causing sciatica.

Facet hypertrophy

The facet joints allow for movement, especially backward extension. When the facet joints become arthritic they can become knobby and large. They also can develop cysts. The larger joints can irritate exiting nerve roots causing sciatica.

Other causes

Less commonly, sciatica can be due to tumors, pelvic infections, and other causes.

Typical diagnosis

Diagnosis of sciatica is most often done clinically by a medical physician. The physician performs a physical examination demonstrating tenderness over certain areas of the spine as well as assessing the various limitations in movement of the lower extremity.

The physician may also order radiological imaging such as X-ray, CT scan, MRI, or bone scan depending on his or her clinical suspicion. Currently, MRIs are the standard for visualizing chronic back pain and are especially useful before any procedures are undertaken.


Typical sciatica symptoms are often described as “pins and needles” and can extend down the buttock, leg, and foot.

Symptoms of serious concern include severe nerve impingement, bladder incontinence, bowel incontinence, lower extremity weakness, and profound loss of sensation. Loss of bowel or bladder function with sensory deficits and weakness is termed “cauda equina syndrome” and is a true medical emergency.


Conservative therapies

Deep tissue massage

Focal rubbing of tender areas may help relieve muscle spasms or contractions and improve the discomfort associated with it. Massage as a sciatica therapy can also help you relax, decreasing stress and tension.


With acupuncture, small needles are inserted into the skin. These needles cause your body to release hormones called endorphins, which are your body’s natural pain relievers. Acupuncture can also help you relax, decreasing stress, tension, and muscular spasm.

Physical therapy

Physical therapy helps improve symptoms of sciatica by increasing flexibility, range of motion, posture, and improving muscle strength.

Nutrition and exercise

Exercise improves the pain of sciatica by increasing flexibility and range of motion. Another benefit is the release of hormones called endorphins, which are your body’s natural pain relievers. Nutrition and healthy eating may be powerful treatments to combat nutritional deficits.


This is a treatment that teaches a patient to become aware of processes that are normally thought to be involuntary inside of the body (such as blood pressure, temperature, and heart rate control). This method enables you to gain some conscious control of these processes, which can influence and improve your level of pain. A better awareness of one’s body teaches one to effectively relax, and this can help to relieve pain.


Epidural steroid injections (ESI)

This procedure involves injecting a medication into the epidural space where the actual irritated nerve root is located. This injection includes both a long-lasting steroid and a local anesthetic (lidocaine, bupivacaine). The steroid reduces the inflammation and irritation and the anesthetic works to interrupt the pain-spasm cycle and nociceptive (pain signal) transmission. The combination medicine then spreads to other levels and portions of the spine, reducing inflammation and irritation. This sciatica treatment usually takes less than 15 minutes.

Trigger point injections (TPIs)

These can be an effective treatment for muscle spasms. The procedure involves injecting a local anesthetic and steroid into a trigger point.

Treatments (cont.)


Used in treating neck pain, this is an exciting new treatment that is widely accepted among modern medicine. In 2005, “Botulinum toxin Type A (BtA) became the first-line therapy for the treatment for cervical dystonia.” Although a single injection of BtA is effective, multiple injection cycles seem to work better for patients (Costa 2005). Botox injections have also been found to be effective in patients with whiplash injuries. Along with reductions in pain, patients were found to have an improved range of motion (Juan 2004).

Infusion techniques

This procedure involves inserting a small catheter through a needle into the epidural space or directly next to affected nerves. Local anesthetic and other medicines are often given through the catheter for extended time periods. When the nerves are blocked continuously with an infusion, pain relief can be dramatic and long-lasting.

Electrical stimulation techniques

Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENs)

This pain relief technique is a passive process with no known side effects. TENS decreases the perception of pain and may be used to control acute and chronic pain. There are several patches placed on your skin in the area that is affected and mild electrical current generates stimuli. This stimuli confuses the spinal cord and brain pain processing centers. Painful signals are replaced by tingling electrical signals in this sciatica treatment. This provides relaxation of the muscle, improves mobility, and can relieve pain.

Spinal cord stimulation (SCS)

SCS involves implanting an electrical device to decrease the perception of pain by confusing the spinal cord and brain pain processing centers. Initially, a trial is done to see if this device will help you long-term. In the initial trial, your pain physician places a small electrical lead through a needle in the epidural space. Painful signals are replaced by tingling electrical signals. If you have success in your trial, you may decide to have a permanent SCS device implanted.

Intrathecal pump implants

Implanted pain pumps can be extremely helpful at providing long-term pain control. The effectiveness of intrathecal sciatica therapy in patients suffering from nociceptive pain showed a pain reduction in 66.7% of patients experiencing pain due to cancer (Becker 2000).

Lysis of adhesions

Also known as the “Racz procedure,” this sciatica therapy has proven effective in removing excessive scar tissue in the epidural space when conservative treatment has failed. A study performed in 2005 noted that: “a spinal adhesiolysis with targeted delivery of local anesthetic and steroid is an effective treatment in a significant number of patients with chronic low back and lower extremity pain without major adverse effects.”

Disc decompression

A needle is inserted through the skin into the affected disc. Disc material is suctioned out of the bulging disc and pressure is relieved within the disc.

Procedures / Surgeries

Below are various procedures for the treatment of sciatica.


NSAIDs (ibuprofen-like drugs), acetaminophen, membrane-stabilizing drugs, muscle relaxants, and other analgesics are often used in the management of pain associated with sciatica.

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