Carpal tunnel syndrome

What is carpal tunnel syndrome?

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) commonly causes pain, numbness, and tingling in the hand. It is caused by compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist. Approximately 15 of every 100,000 individuals will experience CTS per year, with women being at least twice as likely to be affected as men.

What causes carpal tunnel syndrome?

Common causes and predisposing factors include:

  • Repetitive strain and prolonged flexion/extension of the wrist, notably from activities such as driving, reading, typing, and holding a telephone
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Diabetes
  • Wrist fracture and associated swelling
  • Pregnancy/oral contraceptive use leading to swelling in the limbs
  • Underlying nerve dysfunctions

Typical diagnosis

Diagnosis of CTS is performed by a doctor and is based on the symptoms listed below. A physician may perform a variety of physical maneuvers or nerve conduction studies to confirm the diagnosis.


Pain, numbness, and tingling usually occur on the palm and palmar side of the first three fingers from the thumb; weakness can occur in the thumb and adjacent fingers. These symptoms are dependent upon the position of the wrist, but usually, occur at night and may radiate up the arm as far as the shoulder. Other symptoms can include decreased dexterity, a weak grip, atrophy of muscles in the hand, and feelings of hand swelling.


Most mild to moderate cases of CTS can be effectively managed with a combination of conservative treatments which include:

  • Minimizing contributory factors such as repetitive use/strain
  • Wrist splinting helps keep the wrist in a neutral position, limiting prolonged extension/flexion

Treatments (cont.)

  • Glucocorticoids (steroids) can be taken orally or injected into the carpal tunnel to reduce inflammation and compression
  • Deep, pulsed ultrasound can be used to decrease pain and promote soft tissue healing
  • Yoga has been shown to be effective for pain control

Surgical solutions

Surgical intervention is generally more effective than conservative treatments with improvement in approximately 85-90% of cases. Surgery can be performed via an open incision or endoscopically:

  • An open release is performed via a standard incision under local anesthesia and allows a surgeon the best view.
  • An endoscopic release is performed with scopes and surgical tools through one or two small openings and can result in less scar tissue and postoperative pain.


Various treatments are available for Carpal tunnel syndrome.

Procedures / Surgeries

For symptoms that do not improve with conservative therapy within six months, the definitive treatment for moderate or severe CTS is surgical decompression of the median nerve.

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