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What Is Exosome?

What Is Exosome?

At Hudson Medical + Wellness, we are researching the most innovative and promising biotechnologies. One of the most exciting scientific advancements in the frontier of regenerative medicine and pain management is exosome therapy. Our providers are currently conducting clinical trials to assess the potential and efficacy of exosomes for our patients who have cervical or lumbar radiculopathy.

What follows is a primer on exosomes, and why we are excited about incorporating them into our pain management and regenerative medicine pathways.

You can also learn more about exosomes by scheduling a consultation with one of our Pain Management and Regenerative Medicine specialists.

If the word “exosome” sounds vaguely familiar, you may be dredging up memories of high school biology class. An exosome is a very small vesicle (cargo-carrier) that resides near the membrane, or edge, of the cell. Exosomes can be released by their host cells to send chemical messages throughout the body via the body fluids, including blood, urine, and saliva. This biochemical message transmission system is referred to as the paracrine system.

Exosomes originate within almost every cell of the body. They form when a part of the cell membrane folds in on itself — enveloping some cell contents along with it — and then pops out into the bloodstream. Picture this as a small surface bubble that breaks away from its larger host bubble.

What Does an Exosome Do?

As a chemical messenger, an exosome carries information about its host cell and uses that information to communicate with other cells in the body. To draw a modern-day metaphor, consider a smartphone. If a particular cell in your body represents a smartphone with various parts (organelles) that make it function, then an exosome signifies a text message. The text gets formed from within your smartphone, and it can be traced back to your smartphone. But it gets released from your phone into the cyber world, carrying with it information that communicates a message that can be taken up and downloaded by other smartphones that may be very far away.

Similarly, an exosome originates from within a cell, it can be traced back to its host cell, and it gets released into the body to communicate information that can influence other cells. Unlike the characters and pictures that might be transmitted by texts from your smartphone, however, exosomes carry proteins, lipids, and genetic information. These growth factors and pieces of the cellular genetic code can be used by other cells that interact with the exosome to make new proteins and carry out crucial regenerative processes.

How Can I Learn More About Exosomes?

At Hudson Medical + Wellness, we are keenly interested in the benefits of exosomes, alone or in addition to our other minimally invasive pain-relieving technologies such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy.

If you are interested in learning more about exosome therapies, schedule a consultation with one of our Pain Management and Regenerative Medicine specialists today.

References:

D’Arrigo D, Roffi A, Cucchiarini M, Moretti M, Candrian C, Filardo G. Secretome and Extracellular Vesicles as New Biological Therapies for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review. J Clin Med. 2019;8(11):1867. Published 2019 Nov 4. doi: 10.3390/jcm8111867

Egger A, Tomic-Canic M, Tosti A. Advances in Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Hair Loss. CellR4 Repair Replace Regen Reprogram. 2020;8:e2894.

Han C, Sun X, Liu L, et al. Exosomes and Their Therapeutic Potentials of Stem Cells. Stem Cells Int. 2016;2016:7653489. doi: 10.1155/2016/7653489

Hu P, Yang Q, Wang Q, et al. Mesenchymal stromal cells-exosomes: a promising cell-free therapeutic tool for wound healing and cutaneous regeneration [published correction appears in Burns Trauma. 2020 Jan 23;8:tkaa007]. Burns Trauma. 2019;7:38. Published 2019 Dec 26. doi: 10.1186/s41038-019-0178-8

Li JJ, Hosseini-Beheshti E, Grau GE, Zreiqat H, Little CB. Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles for Treating Joint Injury and Osteoarthritis. Nanomaterials (Basel). 2019;9(2):261. Published 2019 Feb 14. doi: 10.3390/nano9020261

Ouyang X, Han X, Chen Z, Fang J, Huang X, Wei H. MSC-derived exosomes ameliorate erectile dysfunction by alleviation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle apoptosis in a rat model of cavernous nerve injury. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2018 Sep 26;9(1):246. doi: 10.1186/s13287-018-1003-1

Vonk LA, van Dooremalen SFJ, Liv N, et al. Mesenchymal Stromal/stem Cell-derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Human Cartilage Regeneration In Vitro. Theranostics. 2018;8(4):906-920. doi: 10.7150/thno.20746

Zhang, Y., Liu, Y., Liu, H. et al. Exosomes: biogenesis, biologic function and clinical potential. Cell Biosci 9, 19 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13578-019-0282-

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