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What Types of Cells Have Exosomes and How Are They Different from Stem Cells?

What Types of Cells Have Exosomes and How Are They Different from Stem Cells?

What Types of Cells Have Exosomes?

Nearly all of the cells in your body create and transmit exosomes. Exosomes derived from skin cells carry information about skin cells, and exosomes derived from bone cells carry around information about bone cells. In the world of regenerative medicine, however, the most useful exosomes involve those derived from stem cells.

Many health-conscious individuals may already be familiar with the basic tenets of stem cell therapy. Stem cells signify cells that have not yet “differentiated,” or grown into a specific type of cell. They remain as the precursors to all cells — little baby not-yet brain cells and little baby not-yet blood cells. As such, they get referred to as pluripotent, meaning that they have multiple potential futures; they receive blank slates that can mature into any type of cell, depending on their environment. If they grow up around heart cells, stem cells can become heart cells. If they grow up around cartilage cells, they can become cartilage cells. For this reason, stem cells have been a breakthrough in regenerative medicine, a medical field devoted to helping the body restore itself.

Nearly every type of cell secretes exosomes, and stem cells are no exception. The exosomes derived from stem cells carry pieces of the very genetic code that makes stem cells so special. Exosomes are like highly concentrated, smaller versions of stem cells that may make them much more valuable when it comes to medicine and biotechnology. Because they comprise only a part of a cell and not a whole cell, they may be more efficient, more nimble, and also safer to use than whole cells. In fact, some researchers suspect that within the field of regenerative medicine, it might not be the stem cells themselves, but their exosome messengers, that exert therapeutic benefits via the paracrine system.

How Are Exosomes Different from Stem Cells?

Many health-conscious individuals may already be familiar with the basic tenets of stem cell therapy. Stem cells signify cells that have not yet “differentiated,” or grown into a specific type of cell. They remain as the precursors to all cells — little baby not-yet brain cells and little baby not-yet blood cells. As such, they get referred to as pluripotent, meaning that they have multiple potential futures; they receive blank slates that can mature into any type of cell, depending on their environment. If they grow up around heart cells, stem cells can become heart cells. If they grow up around cartilage cells, they can become cartilage cells. For this reason, stem cells have been a breakthrough in regenerative medicine, a medical field devoted to helping the body restore itself.

Nearly every type of cell secretes exosomes, and stem cells are no exception. The exosomes derived from stem cells carry pieces of the very genetic code that makes stem cells so special. Exosomes are like highly concentrated, smaller versions of stem cells that may make them much more valuable when it comes to medicine and biotechnology. Because they comprise only a part of a cell and not a whole cell, they may be more efficient, more nimble, and also safer to use than whole cells. In fact, some researchers suspect that within the field of regenerative medicine, it might not be the stem cells themselves, but their exosome messengers, that exert therapeutic benefits via the paracrine system.

How Can I Learn More About Exosomes?

At Hudson Medical + Wellness, we are keenly interested in the benefits of exosomes, alone or in addition to our other minimally invasive pain-relieving technologies such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy.

If you are interested in learning more about exosome therapies, schedule a consultation with one of our Pain Management and Regenerative Medicine specialists today.

References:

D’Arrigo D, Roffi A, Cucchiarini M, Moretti M, Candrian C, Filardo G. Secretome and Extracellular Vesicles as New Biological Therapies for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review. J Clin Med. 2019;8(11):1867. Published 2019 Nov 4. doi: 10.3390/jcm8111867

Egger A, Tomic-Canic M, Tosti A. Advances in Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Hair Loss. CellR4 Repair Replace Regen Reprogram. 2020;8:e2894.

Han C, Sun X, Liu L, et al. Exosomes and Their Therapeutic Potentials of Stem Cells. Stem Cells Int. 2016;2016:7653489. doi: 10.1155/2016/7653489

Hu P, Yang Q, Wang Q, et al. Mesenchymal stromal cells-exosomes: a promising cell-free therapeutic tool for wound healing and cutaneous regeneration [published correction appears in Burns Trauma. 2020 Jan 23;8:tkaa007]. Burns Trauma. 2019;7:38. Published 2019 Dec 26. doi: 10.1186/s41038-019-0178-8

Li JJ, Hosseini-Beheshti E, Grau GE, Zreiqat H, Little CB. Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles for Treating Joint Injury and Osteoarthritis. Nanomaterials (Basel). 2019;9(2):261. Published 2019 Feb 14. doi: 10.3390/nano9020261

Ouyang X, Han X, Chen Z, Fang J, Huang X, Wei H. MSC-derived exosomes ameliorate erectile dysfunction by alleviation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle apoptosis in a rat model of cavernous nerve injury. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2018 Sep 26;9(1):246. doi: 10.1186/s13287-018-1003-1

Vonk LA, van Dooremalen SFJ, Liv N, et al. Mesenchymal Stromal/stem Cell-derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Human Cartilage Regeneration In Vitro. Theranostics. 2018;8(4):906-920. doi: 10.7150/thno.20746

Zhang, Y., Liu, Y., Liu, H. et al. Exosomes: biogenesis, biologic function and clinical potential. Cell Biosci 9, 19 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13578-019-0282-

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